The mustard greens are a kind of tiller mustard
vegetable, which leaf is green, long, thin and with sawtooth. It has
many tilters and high output under sufficient conditions. It is suitable
for pickle. There are good flavors after pickling. Its unique faint
scent, particular crisp, full of microelements of iron, zinc, selenium
and so on, are of very high social and economic value, which is deeply
loved by the mass of customers. But pickled mustard greens bring trouble
to transportation, direct edibility, therefore industrialized production
is limited. In this article, researches are done on process technology
of pickled potherb mustard in soft package in order to provide convenience
for the masses of consumers and take the purpose of facilitate transport
and benefit industrialization.
1. Experimental material and equipments
1.1 Raw material: potherb mustard—choose non-pollution, fresh and
tender, purchase raw material on market directly.
1.2 Raw material and supplement material: edible salt, sugar, sourness
agent and so on should accord with state standard of quality and sanitation.
1.3 Package material: NY/A1/PE, PET/CPP, compound thin membrane bag
in 100 g, which accord with state standard of quality and sanitation.
1.4 Equipments: cutting machine, presser, vacuum device, vacuum envelope
2. Experiment method
2.1 Technology flow 2.2
2.2.1 Raw material checking and clearing up: choose non-pollution,
fresh and tender potherb mustard as raw material. Get rid of drooped
leaves, weed and a spot of mud.
2.2.2 Pickle: 15%0% of the salt pickles one month with raw materials
amount. A layer of mustard greens and a layer of salt when being salted,
one layer of debulk; Turning over the jar once every day first week,
its purpose is pickling evenly , no heat will arise; Compress tightly
with the blue and green stone one week later. Can sneak into 0.1%
calcium chloride at adding salt , can improve fragile degree of product
obviously, reason its to utilize calcium ion and pectin sour function
in the mustard greens , form gel pectin sour calcium, protect cells
and glue and form cells, and play a role in protecting fragily
2.2.3 Desalination: Adopt hierarchical desalination , pickle heavy
heads of mustard greens after adopt and soak and wash the law desalination;
It is small a head of mustard greens wash the desalination directly.
Wash net silt particle and other incidentals at the time of the desalination,
keep the content of salt in 5%~6%.
2.2.4 Root segmentation: Go root purpose to get rid of inclusive silt
particle and can't eat part. Segmentation adopts the artificial or
mechanical law, hierarchical segmentation: Pickle mustard greens heavy
heads of stem cut 4mm to be long , small heads of dish cut 50mm to
be long , wide leaf Hong cuts 10* 5m㎡ on learning.
2.2.5 Press and dehydrate : Press and get rid of some water, do benefit
to flavouring the infiltration of the liquid . Require after dehydrating
the moisture is under 70%.
2.2.6 The vacuum is tasty: Flavour liquid is it is it dehydrate mustard
greens after to press , flavour consumption of liquid for 50% , raw
materials of quantity after pressing to admix; Then smoke vacuum,
purpose to accelerate ripe, is it flavour liquid permeate through
the cell interval under the low-voltage terms to make; Vacuity ≥ 600mmHg
post, finds time time to press slightly after about , tasty 30 minutes.
Flavour the liquid to compound : Is it make certain time to boil spices
and licorice root in proportion , pull out material dreg add white
sugar , refined salt , acid , gourmet powder ,etc., is it flavour
the liquid to filter after melting.
2.2.7 Put bag and seal: Put and take the place of net content ≥100
grams. It is hot to seal the vacuity on the hot 450mmHg post range
of 650mmHg , seal automatically.
2.2.8 Disinfect : 5 ' 5 30 ' / 85 ℃, then cool to 37 ℃ rapidly.
2.3 The sense judging
Utilize the sense organ to evaluate color , flavor , fragile degree
of every sample , is chosen as 1 fen, 1 fen expresses extremely that
does not welcome , 4 fen expresses that in line, 8 fen is expressed
and liked very much. Then count , ask for the average .
3. Quality level
3.1 Sense organ index
Yellowish green small even cubic solid, it is crisp and tender to
organize , there is no coarse fibre, there is no impurity; Is it pickle
mustard greens peculiar fragrance and flavor to have , there is no
peculiar smell .
3.2 Physiochemical index
Net Content： ≥100克
Salt Content： 4%~5%
Sugar Content： 3%~4%
PH Value： 4~4.3
Arsenic： ≤0.5 mg/kg.
Lead： ≤1.0 mg/kg
3.3 Microbe Index
Colibacillus： ≤30个/100 g
Disease germ： non
4. Result Analysis
4.1 Different impacts on mustard greens quality of the soft-packing
of sterilization condition Seeing forms 1 finally, atmospheric pressure
sterilization temperature was the lower its quality was relative good
; It has corruption that rise one bag of phenomena while preserving
that 75 ℃ disinfects for 40 minutes, it is uneconomical to extend
sterilization time, so have priority to select 85 ℃for use and disinfect
for 30 minutes.
4.2 Different impacts on mustard greens quality of the soft-packing
of wrappings Seeing forms 2 finally, under the same sterilization
condition, a bag of packaging mustard greens of NY/A1/PE broke one
bag of rates while disinfecting and was slightly higher than PET/CPP
by one bag of a percentage points, and the business accounting indicates
that very little to losses which the factory causes directly, but
a bag of packaging mustard greens of PET/CPP influence quality of
the products in preserving certain time; So have priority to select
NY/A1/PE complex wrapping bag for use.
4.3 Use HL - -2 mixes and protects the impact on mustard greens quality
of the soft-packing of green pharmaceutical Saw forms 3 finally, HL
- -2 mix not protecting because there aren't pharmaceutical not green,
must pickling there aren't mustard greens; The result shows : Use
HL - -2 type is it protect green color better pharmaceutical to mix,
approach getting green, but fragile degree, the flavor is slightly
bad, the result is unsatisfactory.
4.4 Products and domestic city that research make this sell only 3
like product make and compare See result in table 4, soft-packing
between mustard greens and city that research make this sell like
product compare with, color is it is it watch from sense unanimous
to come to judge, flavor and fragile degrees of respect superior to
domestic city sell at product.